In France, President Hollande’s utter failure to foster broad consensus for structural reforms has paved the way for a contested election. While public debate focuses on Emmanuel Macron as the savior of France, the real story is that Marine Le Pen’s agenda has shifted the French political landscape.
Key takeaway – The Italian economy is large, relatively diversified and sturdy. Historically, growth has been driven by external factors (e.g.: the “economic miracle” after World War II) or political efforts (e.g.: competitive devaluations and fiscal spending between the 1970s and the 1990s).
Micro-economic features of economic systems can have a major impact on national performance. Policymakers should therefore reconfigure their scoreboards to reflect the roles played in a country’s economic growth by large internationalized firms, global value chains or resource reallocation.