Bill to Stop No Deal Brexit Passes Lords: Legal Challenge May Come Monday

-edited

The Benn Bill to stop a No Deal Brexit passed the House of Lords. It is due get Royal Assent on Monday

Royal Assent is the final step in which a parliamentary bill in the UK becomes law.

The Guardian Live reports

"A bill designed to stop Boris Johnson taking the UK out of the EU on 31 October without a Brexit agreement has cleared the House of Lords, and it is set to become law on Monday when it is due to get royal assent. The bill is thought to be legally watertight, and it seems to have closed off the option of Johnson forcing a no-deal Brexit at the end of October"

I note the word "due" and "thought".

It's not guaranteed. Boris has options if he wants to use them, especially in regards to "thought".

One of his options is simply to ask the Queen to deny Royal Assent. A second is to deny Queen's Consent. The latter has a different legal context but in essence does the same thing. Simply put, the bill may not be watertight.

I will explain the difference below once again (this time shorter) but first let's look at another take.

Eurointelligence Puzzled

We have yet to understand why team Johnson is not frustrating the anti-Brexit legislation through one of the means we have outlined in recent days. The media are silent on this point. If readers have any information on this particular point, we would like to hear it. Maybe they received legal advice. Or they concluded that any further involvement of the Queen would backfire. It is also possible - in theory - that they have a better plan, but we should probably not overestimate their strategic acumen. They certainly did not game the election scenarios carefully enough. The two-thirds majority threshold in the fixed-term parliaments act was always, and remains, formidable.

So what can Johnson do apart from cranking up the rhetoric, like the pledge that he'd rather die in a ditch than ask for an extension? What will he do when the request for an extension is the law?

Another option for Johnson is to defy the Brexit bill, and risk being impeached by parliament. This is what Robert Peston was suggesting yesterday. Impeachment in the UK is an ancient procedure to try individuals for high treason that is now considered obsolete, in contrast for example to the US. But would it not be easier for parliament to launch a vote of no-confidence and install Jeremy Corbyn in Number 10? We presume that the LibDems might hold their nose, but maybe not all opposition MPs would support Corbyn.

A third possibility is for Johnson to find some way for the EU to reject the extension. This is probably the smartest choice, but requires a strategy the UK has not yet deployed. The UK could refuse to comply with EU demands attached to an extension, like appointing a European Commissioner. The UK could co-opt another member state ready to wield a veto - maybe against the promise of preferential treatment for its citizens after Brexit. Maybe Johnson could tell the European Council that the request for an extension was forced on him by his parliament, and that the European Council would risk a very disturbing period unless they refuse this reluctant request.

Puzzled at Eurointelligence Puzzlement

For the moment, I am puzzled why Eurointelligence is puzzled.

"We have yet to understand why team Johnson is not frustrating the anti-Brexit legislation through one of the means we have outlined in recent days. The media are silent on this point."

Eurointelligence is making an assumption that Boris will not pursue one of the options it laid out. But why would Johnson tell the opposition in advance what it would do?

Royal Assent

A bill that passes Parliament only becomes law only with the Queen's blessing. This is normally a formality simply because passed legislation is nearly always from the government.

Queen's Consent

Queen's Consent regards the rights of government to conduct international negotiations.

I discussed the difference between Royal Assent and Queen's Consent at length yesterday in Another Weird Brexit Turn: Tories Vote to Support No Deal Bill in House of Lords.

Eurointelligence Comments Yesterday

Government could, for example, withhold Royal Assent. The legal expert Robert Craig recalls yet another arcane procedural requirement. It is called Queen’s Consent which - if you can believe it - is different from Royal Assent. Queen’s Consent relates to legislation that shifts the royal prerogative - in this case the right of the Crown, and the government as its agent, to conduct international negotiations

Information Lacking

Eurointelligence appears to have concluded Johnson has not and will not pursue either of those options even to the point of stating "The media are silent on this point. If readers have any information on this particular point, we would like to hear it."

I have no information other than the obvious, which Eurointelligence ignored.

What's the Obvious?

  1. Until the Bill receives Royal Assent it is not law.
  2. The Bill has not received Royal Assent yet.
  3. We do not know what Johnson's strategy is.
  4. We will only know that Johnson has ruled out an attack on Royal Assent or Queen's Consent if and when the bill get's Royal Assent, Johnson formally issues a legal challenge, or asks the Queen for a delay to allow the Government to study the legality of the bill.

Eurointelligence Jumped the Gun

That Eurointelligence jumped the gun based on point number 4 above.

That does not make the end result wrong as Johnson may simply decide not to go down those paths.

But even if correct (in the final result) Eurointelligence made a logic error. Johnson has not yet ruled out the options.

Those options were first discussed by Robert Craig , then Eurointelligence, then me, with otherwise media silence.

Direct Royal Assent Attack is Risky

A Royal Assent attack (asking the Queen to not accept the Bill would be very risky. Johnson would need a reason or he could create a legal crisis of some kind.

On the other hand, asking the Queen for a short delay that would allow Government to study the legality of the bill seems quite reasonable.

I believe the Queen would undoubtedly go along if Johnson explained the nature of the challenge to the Queen's legal team.

With that, let's return to the legal issue.

Queen's Consent Attack

Legal expert Robert Craig (LSE) writes Proponents of the new Bill to stop No Deal face a significant dilemma over Queen’s Consent.

Emphasis Mixed - Some Craig's, Some Mine

Queen’s Consent is a procedural requirement for any Bill passing through the Commons and Lords where the terms of the Bill would ‘affect’ the exercise of any royal prerogative if it was passed.

If a Bill affects prerogative, a minister must explicitly confirm that the government agrees that the Bill should pass. This formally happens in the Commons at the Third Reading stage. If the government does not want the Bill to proceed, its refusal to indicate its approval at Third Reading is fatal for the Bill.

Prerogative powers are legacy powers of the Crown that are now mainly exercised by the government. Conducting foreign affairs, and in particular the power to agree treaties and operate treaty powers, is an important part of the prerogative and is the relevant power for this post. Under that power, the UK government has agreed new treaties, and particular laws, at EU level over the last 46 years (and indeed continues to do so).

The story behind the passage of Cooper-Letwin is more complex than many realize. The drafting of the original version was masterly. Cooper-Letwin mandated the then Prime Minister (PM) to seek an extension to the Article 50 process. The word ‘seek’ is crucial. The reason it is so crucial is that it allowed the argument to be made that Queen’s Consent was not necessary for the Bill. This was because to ‘seek’ an extension does not actually have any effect in terms of changing the date of exit at EU level. Seeking an extension arguably does not ‘affect’ prerogative exercise as a matter of law.

In fact, the PM sought an extension before Cooper-Letwin had even passed so the second extension from 12 April to 31 October was in fact secured solely through the normal exercise of prerogative power. Indeed, the first extension, from 29 March until 12 April was also done entirely using prerogative power.

The issue of Queen’s Consent was taken very seriously during the passage of the Cooper-Letwin Bill and was so controversial it resulted in a [formal ruling](https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2019-04-03/debates/0F559E56-033F-4F8F-B10F-4DAE45A91997/EuropeanUnion(Withdrawal%29(No5%29Bill) by the Speaker. That ruling made clear that the original draft of the Bill did not require Queen’s Consent.

If Benn-Burt had precisely followed the format of Cooper-Letwin and only mandated that the government seek an extension, then it would have placed no obligation on the PM to agree or accept any extension. That would remain part of the prerogative power to be exercised as the PM sees fit in his negotiations with the EU27.

However, Benn-Burt goes much further than Cooper-Letwin. It mandates that the PM must not only seek but also agree to an extension, either 31 January 2020 or another date if the Commons approves a date suggested by the EU27. Mandating that the PM agrees to an extension manifestly affects the prerogative. It is difficult to see how requesting Queen’s Consent can be avoided for this Bill. If so, it follows that the government must agree to the Bill being passed during Third Reading.

The proponents of a new Bill to prevent No Deal are caught on the horns of a dilemma. If they had drafted a Bill that only mandated the PM to seek an extension, the PM would be left free to refuse to agree or accept any extension in negotiations with the EU27.

But the actual Bill tries to impose a requirement that the PM either agrees to 31 January 2020 or agrees any new exit date suggested by the EU27 (as long as a motion approving the alternative date in the House of Commons is passed). House of Commons procedural rules mean that the government is required formally to approve the Bill by affirming ‘Queen’s Consent’ to the Bill at the Third Reading stage. This is because the power to agree or accept an extension is normally exercised using a prerogative power. If passed, this statute would have the legal effect, by whatever means, of forcing the PM to agree an extension to the Article 50 process would manifestly ‘affect’ the prerogative for the purposes of the relevant test as to whether Queen’s Consent is required.

Queen's Consent Required

I am not a lawyer, but that opinion from legal expert Robert Craig seems airtight.

That said, it is possible Johnson made a mistake. Let's return to a couple of Craig Statements.

  1. It follows that the government must agree to the Bill being passed during the Third Reading.
  2. House of Commons procedural rules mean that the government is required formally to approve the Bill by affirming ‘Queen’s Consent’ to the Bill at the Third Reading stage.

The government certainly did not give Queen's Consent at the third reading.

Legal Question of the Day

What happens if the government does not object and the bill moves on? Is that giving consent?

If so, the Johnson team made a major, major mistake.

Still, a legal ruling on this can drag on for a long time if Johnson asks the queen for time to study legal rulings.

It would be to Johnson's advantage to delay having to give precise reasons publicly until the last moment.

Mistake Made Somewhere

It seems that somebody made a mistake. At this point we do not know if it was Benn or Johnson.

There is a third possibility: Benn knew the bill was lot legal (purposely making a mistake) and hoped that it would slip by Johnson.

Here's the fourth possibility: Johnson and Benn both knew the bill is not legal with Benn taking a chance Johnson would not catch it and Johnson figuring he could legally challenge it later rather than sooner.

We find out more on Monday.

Mike "Mish" Shedlock

Comments (64)
No. 1-19
krage
krage

My interpretation was that Speaker ruled that Queen's Consent was not required which is not correct and illegal, but due to Bercow's rulling the goverment did not have a chance to object or say anything.

Also, the goverment was expected Bercow to uphold the law and and ask for the Consent, that is why after this rulling, Tori decided to contest Bercow's spot in parlament in next elections which is typicaly not done for Speakers.

I think goverment is fully aware of all this. It just gave the chance to various fractions of the remainers to put breaks to the bill which would not be passed anyway without escaltion to the courts and those tricky legalities. But none of the them decided to stop at any point... It is life or death game for them... So, the next election proposal planned for Monday, is the last chance for remainers to preserve something left ..... if they do not take it, likely, it would be complete loss/purge and Boris will push though Brexit without any contests... and likely it will be hard brexit...

Country Bob
Country Bob

So this bill violates the queen's prerogative to negtotiate foreign treaties without legislative interference. No it doesn't, yes it does. Tastes great, less filling. Johnson refuses to abide by it either way, and there is nothing the remainers can do about that short of calling a general election that they will lose badly.

Or door number two, Johnson calls a general election himself, and the remainers lose badly.

All the drama and real world relevance of a soap opera.

Stuki
Stuki

Both sides are now increasingly led by people whose positions, and even more so fame, perceived importance and public visibility, have benefited from this circus. And will continue to benefit as long as the circus last. Whatever their "strategists" may be saying publicly, the "ideal outcome" for most of those involved directly, is to keep the circus lasting for as long as possible. Eventually, there will be some end finality. But none of the "players" involved particular benefit from that happening....

jon_dlewis
jon_dlewis

Johnson could play some of those more exotic options but they would seriously impact the ability of the country to come back together again. It will simply invoke a long period of bitterness. IMHO the only real way to break the deadlock is to have a legally binding people's vote giving population the choice of revoke, no deal or the exising withdrawal agreement. This should be backed up by a legally binding obligation to implement within 14 days of the vote. Then nobody can complain.

Mish
Mish

Editor

"My interpretation was that Speaker ruled that Queen's Consent was not required which is not correct and illegal, but due to Bercow's rulling the goverment did not have a chance to object or say anything.

Also, the government was expected Bercow to uphold the law and and ask for the Consent, that is why after this ruling, Tories decided to contest Bercow's spot in parliament in next elections which is typically not done for Speakers."

Krage, Thanks Is that your interpretation from reading this blog or something else? If something else - what? Have a link?

I am about the only person discussing this

Solon
Solon

Something weird going on here. My understanding is that if there was a procedural problem with the Bill being sent to the House of Lords---ie not having the Queen's Consent it requires---then the Privy Council should have returned it to the House of Commons to be corrected, before passing it themselves.

I have no idea why this wasn't undertaken. Now the Bill is subject only to Royal Assent.

The only conceivable reason for this path being taken that I can determine is that a legal challenge could/should represent a more time-consuming process than returning to a Third Reading. But wouldn't it have just been simpler to deny Queen's Consent and be done with the Bill right then and there? And any legal challenge would then have to come from the Opposition (which reflects poorly on them, especially since they crafted it).

Was there concern the Opp could craft a new better bill prior to prorog? Or concern about the Speaker? Why filibuster in the HOL in the first place and then flip when it gained the Government no time? Seems like something has changed.

RonJ
RonJ

"Bill to Stop No Deal Brexit Passes Lords"

What new deal has the EU offered since March 31st?

Five months have gone bye bye since Brextention and Brextanica appears to be under mutiny by the crew, when the passengers chose to Brexit the dock and sail to a different port. It is no way to run a cruise liner.

Yancey_Ward
Yancey_Ward

I don't think anything has changed- if the court challenges on the Queen's Consent aren't used, then I think Johnson will just sit on his hands until Parliament muscles up the gumption to hold a no-confidence vote and then proceed from there.

As for the Royal Assent, Johnson can easily recommend to the queen to not give it, and if he did that, I think it quite likely she would accede to this request- he could even use the argument that Queen's Consent being denied the way it was abrogated the rules of legislation, and the problem here is that Bercow has literally abrogated his duties as Speaker to take sides on this issue for over a year now. You have to remember, Johnson and his ministers are still the holders of the Crown and the actual executive function of the government itself- their opinion here is what really matters when it comes to Royal Assent, not the Queen's.

Yancey_Ward
Yancey_Ward

In any case, I think Johnson simply sits on his hands, forcing Parliament to do a no-confidence vote and try to replace him one way or another. The battle to see who would be PM if the opponents still won't agree to a general election would probably be the biggest clown show in English history.

Mish
Mish

Editor

"As for the Royal Assent, Johnson can easily recommend to the queen to not give it, and if he did that, I think it quite likely she would accede to this request- he could even use the argument that Queen's Consent being denied the way it was abrogated the rules of legislation, and the problem here is that Bercow has literally abrogated his duties as Speaker to take sides on this issue for over a year now."

Excellent comment by Yancey

KarlH
KarlH

I think you’re all struggling to analyse the position and forecast the outcome because there is an outcome you want (which is based on previous forecasts and Johnson’s bluster) and you’re trying to fit peculiarly English parliamentary procedure around your desired outcome.

Whilst I live on this side of the pond I have maybe the dubious - and one time only advantage - of being English. The truth is probably hiding here in plain sight.

Johnson isn’t an elected prime minister. He isn’t liked by his peers. He’s viewed as an upstart and in England that can often be a man who is about to get a lesson in manners. Worse still he has made three mistakes:

  1. Hiring Dominic Cummings
  2. Allowing Jacob Rees-Mogg to lie down contemptuously in the front bench where better people than Jake have sat
  3. Sacking 21 very respected Conservative back benchers for simply voting with conscience

Johnson is now at the mercy of opposition benches, he has made many powerful enemies very quickly, is badly advised and had embarrassed the Crown. Whether or not you or I think that is right or wrong then he has probably overstepped the mark

Also Boris lies and England isn’t America - however much Johnson tries to copy Trump. He needed to build trust and not let idiots like Cummings and Rees-Mogg loose on much more intelligent and experienced colleagues. He’s not trusted and with no written constitution trust counts for a lot in terms of political procedure in England.

I say England very deliberately. Brexit is an English problem and one of identity for a small sector of the population. Don’t rush to join their conspiracy theories

Don’t be surprised next week if the obvious happens and the law passes and Johnson runs out of rope.

leicestersq
leicestersq

This bill is a very odd one. I have never heard of a bill before requiring that someone has to do something if they clearly don't want to.

The GE is also interesting. The remainers know that they will lose it, so again they are objecting to one in order to keep their majority in the house so that they can frustrate Brexit. Boris is quite right when he says it is pointless negotiating with the EU because the house will never agree to anything that the EU comes up with, because that will mean leaving the EU.

Solon
Solon

Ahh, I had no idea the Speaker is in conflict with the Government. Thank you to Krage for that. That explains pretty much everything.... why denial of Queen's Consent wasn't deployed, and also the limited filibuster. They could merely have been using the filibuster to buy time to ensure their understanding of their legal options from that point were correct, before allowing the HOL to pass the Bill. Especially if Bercow surprised them. I expect Mish's read is correct and we will see a legal challenge next week. Just excellent work on this so far, Mish.

flubber
flubber

"and in other news....I'm still Waiting for Godot"

RB2
RB2

The 'lords' are not elected. EOM

we_will_be_Ok
we_will_be_Ok

I am disappointed. Does not look like Boris had thought this thing through well. What was the point in suspending the parliament if it left plenty of time for the opposition to achieve exactly the same thing that they wanted to achieve, i.e., pass a law preventing hard Brexit? Another miscalculation is that Corbyn will jump on the opportunity to have an early election. Or that Tories will not mass fall on their swords to prevent Brexit. And isn't it that a snap election on Brexit is just another referendum on the same thing by a different name? I thought Boris was against a referendum re-run that some others have suggested. All these procedural scheming reeks of desperation. Some times, the best move is to not make a move and wait for randomness and happenstance to align things in your favor. Maybe Boris is a buffoon, and not a genius pretending to be a buffoon.

The only thing Boris has done is to expose the depth of anti-Brexit feeling among the ruling elite and MPs. Corbyn and a majority of Tories (those 21 who came out of the anti-Brexit 'closet', and those still to come out) aren't that different on this issue and are willing to collaborate to stop it. If an early election on Brexit is to occur, which seems to be the only thing and by any means assured thing that Boris could potentially achieve now, then he and his Tory supporters (which would be a minority of MPs) would have to partner with Farage to campaign against the majority of Tories and Corbyn. What a political realignment! If this comes to be, I would trust Farage more than Boris to be more competent and to lead...

electronhauler
electronhauler

The sad fact is that parliament put themselves in charge of Brexit when a majority of them are remainers; as are the negotiators on the EU side. Which left us with remainers trying to negotiate leaving the EU. The victims of this shenanigans is the British electorate who for the last 3 years have been fed non stop scare mongering about leaving the EU. The remainers agency is of course the BBC. Nearly 75% of the world's economy runs outside the EU and they seem to do just fine. In fact the fastest growing economies lie outside the EU. Negotiating any deal with the EU is a nightmare.. just talk to Canada about that. The EU want to make it difficult for Britain to leave as they have the most to lose. Wake up Britain!

George_Phillies
George_Phillies

There are reports that remainer Members of Parliament negotiated privately with the EU about some issues relating to extension. In the United States, this would arguably be illegal, though that law is notable for having been on the books for more than two centuries without ever being applied. What is the situation in the UK?

Expat
Expat

The bill was passed and assent was given. While I understand that many here are rabidly anti-EU and pro-Brexit, it is rather sad seeing all this clutching at straws and make-believe going on. Some of you are simply unfamiliar with British parliamentary procedures and British custom and have made up stories along the way about how this process would work ("no one can introduce a bill unless the it was in the Queen's speech, the Lords will filibuster the bill, Boris can speak incantations and turn Labour MP's into mice, the Queen can deny assent, Boris can disobey the law, etc."). And even the cherished legal opinion cited which seems to offer so much hope has been shown to be useless.

You have been wrong every step of the way and keep making up new things in hopes of saving what? Brexit or your pride? Brexit will happen, so I suppose it's your pride.

Brexit will happen and probably without a deal simply because Boris is a clown. Much like Trump, he likes pomp and show but has no grasp of content or meaning. A small minority of Brits voted to leave the UK but a very small minority want to leave under the terms of a Hard Brexit. The fault lies with Leavers who have unrealistic expectations; they want all the benefits of the EU and none of the obligations so they have blocked the back-stop.