China Posts Largest-Ever Annual Trade Surplus with US: What's it Mean?

China posted a $275.8 billion trade surplus with the US in 2017, even though its overall surplus shrank. What's next?

A global recovery led by the U.S. provided a shot in the arm for Chinese exporters last year, boosting China’s economy. Rising American demand, in particular, pushed up Chinese shipments, expanding China’s trade surplus in goods with the U.S. by 10% to $275.8 billion in 2017, according to Chinese customs data released Friday.

That figure, a record for the nearly five decades for which such data exist, marks the U.S.’s largest trade deficit with any trading partner. By comparison, China’s overall foreign trade surplus contracted 17% as higher prices of oil, iron ore and other commodities raised the value of inbound shipments from countries like Russia, Australia and Saudi Arabia.

Mr. Trump savaged China as a predatory trader during his campaign for the presidency, though he has toned down his rhetoric since. In an interview with The Wall Street Journal on Thursday, before the latest trade figures were published, Mr. Trump suggested he would have resorted to stricter measures to correct the trade imbalance with China if it weren’t for Beijing’s help in pressuring North Korea over its nuclear weapons development.

“We’ve been much tougher on China, but not nearly as tough as I would be, but they are helping us a lot with North Korea,” Mr. Trump said.

In closed-door meetings with American officials and business executives, Chinese officials have threatened tit-for-tat for any U.S. penalties and urged American companies with large operations in China to warn Washington against taking such actions. “We have contingency plans in place,” a Chinese official involved in policy-making said, without giving details.

One likely target is imports of U.S. soybeans. China’s hefty demand for soybeans, used to feed hogs in large-scale farms, has benefited U.S. farmers and companies including Cargill Inc. and Archer Daniels Midland Co. , and executives with American soybean exporters have said they’ve been warned that shipments could suffer in a trade spat with the U.S.

What's Does it Mean?

  1. Trump will howl. Whether he starts a global trade war over this is another matter. NAFTA negotiations were a disaster, but Trump still has done nothing yet.
  2. The US has a huge buyer for US Treasuries.

I had a laugh last week regarding reports that China may slow or halt its purchases of US treasuries. China will do no such thing. To be more specific, I see a buyer of approximately $275.8 billion in US treasuries.

For the most part, those who think China will cut back its net purchases simply do not understand trade math.

There may be some small differences between the trade deficit and Chinese purchases of treasuries, the most likely possibility is if China needs to prop up the Renminbi to halt capital flight.

China may also try to buy US companies instead. But I suspect Congress would kill most of those proposals.

Mike "Mish" Shedlock

No. 1-14

More of America's wealth is flowing into China that these numbers indicate because a backdoor is also adding to it. Follow the money and the United States huge trade deficit with Mexico becomes even more disturbing as you begin to understand where the money eventually ends up. When you start thinking about all the money and jobs we shift into Mexico each year you would think by now Mexico would be rolling in cash.

A bit of research quickly confirms that the many billions of dollars Mexico receives by way of trading with America quickly passes through its lands and flows to Asia. It could be argued that when all is said and done we are still transferring our wealth to the far east only by the scenic route. More on the problem with this in the article below.


you can buy the Make America Great Again hat from Trump for $25, or $8.99 on Amazon, Made in China


Trump needs to wear a made in China hat that says "Make China Great" LOL. He's a paper tiger


In 2010 China held $1.15T in treasuries, in 2017 they held $1.05T. The cumulative surplus trade with US was $1.5T in that period. Mish, your "math" is way off.


@Blacklisted wrote:

[...China could buy gold in the US and sell it in London and tell Trump see, we are working to help you with the trade deficit....]

China could buy gold and just keep it (which they are already doing), though I'm not sure if there is enough free gold in the US pm market to make purchases from there large enough to move the trade deficit needle.

In fact, I wonder if the near decade-long build up of gold reserves by China (and Russia) is in part, driven by a desire to diversify away from US Treasuries.