All a country can do is try to run it's economy efficiently, and let the free market do the rest. In that case, the jobs you don't want (toxic pollution, low economic value) get exported, and the high value jobs (e.g. medical research) get retained. The US does many things well, and thus we have a high standard of living. We also do a few things that make no economic sense.
The first obvious thing that make no economic sense are to continually raise the minimum wage. That makes small businesses non-viable, stagnating the job creation, innovation, and creativity that usually originates in smaller businesses. It also forces businesses to export jobs whose value is below the minimum. In the absence of a minimum, jobs would be retained in the US until demand for workers raised the price of labor higher, and only those jobs which had a value less than the market rate for labor would be exported. Furthermore, if a company in one part of the country could not produce something economically, they might move the production to another part of the country where labor was more readily available. That used to happen all the time, but now there is no reason to do that, because the labor rates are the same, so instead they have no choice but to send the job overseas, or be put out of business.
The second economic insanity is to have a non-integrated welfare system. For whatever reason, the US has an ad hoc welfare system that is cobbled together from countless parts that don't work together, some at the state level, some at the Federal level, and others at the local level. The result is that Low Income workers often hit welfare cliffs where they have an effective income tax of >100%. If they make more money, they lose more in benefits than they gain in income, and have less spendable income. There are unemployment programs, AFDC, food stamps, housing assistance, Medicaid, energy assistance, childcare assistance, and who knows what other programs, and none of them are connected to any other. Welfare and assistance is a necessary part of an advanced civilization, but there should only be one program, and it should all be tied together uniformly so that it makes economic sense.
If you fixed these two economic insanities, then the free market would be more efficient, and the US would only export jobs we really don't want. With the insanities, we export far more jobs than we really should. Tariffs and jawboning won't bring them back, given that we've created economic inefficiencies that caused them to be exported in the first place, and especially since we continue to expand the inefficiencies rather than addressing them. For example, given the low level of economic understanding in the US, it is inevitable that we will increase the minimum wage to $15, and the result will be to dramatically increase the exporting of jobs. The same with piling on medicaid expansion without ever considering whether you are creating additional welfare cliffs; it will create additional cliffs, and more people will withdraw either partially or completely from the work force, leaving us with more jobs exported, even as we have people would could do them, but won't because of economic disincentives.