The Investment podcast hosts two leading minds on the matter, Tuur Demeester and Charlie Lee, for a very informing and critical discussion of the upcoming protocol changes in the Bitcoin protocol.
They also discuss 'Lightning Network'. This can be described as cryptographically enforced IOU's, which get tallied up, and can then be settled as a single transaction over time. This negates the need for a lot of transactions back and forth, decreases costs, and speeds up transactions (as it happens outside the blockchain).
You can skip the first 10/15 minutes, and after that a great discussion ensues!